A high-end crowd’s CNC gold exchange platform provides you with the most convenient CNC information and creates the most advanced CNC technology information platform. brass knobs
Speaking of the industry’s so-called “super material,” I believe that many people think of sapphire at first. That’s right, this kind of material with high hardness has attracted much attention because of Apple’s favor. But in addition to sapphire, scientists have already developed many significant supermaterials in the laboratory. This article will introduce six of them.
Self-repairing material – bionic plastic
The human body has a very strong ability to repair itself, but the built environment does not have this ability. Last year, Scott White at the University of Illinois developed a biomimetic plastic with self-healing capabilities. This polymer embeds a “vascular system” made of liquid, and when it breaks, the fluid can seep and clump like blood. This bionic plastic can repair cracks up to 4 mm wide compared to other materials that can only repair tiny cracks. brass knobs
Thermoelectric Material – Thermal Scavenger
For any device that will use energy, waste heat generation is inevitable. According to estimates, 2/3 of all energy used by humans is lost as waste heat. But what if there is a way to capture these wasted energy?
Last year, a company called Alphabet Energy developed a hot-spot generator that can be plugged directly into the exhaust pipe of an ordinary generator to convert waste heat into usable electricity. This type of generator uses a relatively cheap and natural thermoelectric material called cerium-copper, which is said to achieve 5-10% energy efficiency.
In the laboratory, scientists are already studying another thermoelectric material with promising prospects and even higher energy efficiency, called skutterudite, a cobalt-containing mineral. Thermoelectric materials have now begun small-scale applications – such as in spacecraft – but skutterudites are cheap and energy-efficient, and can be used to wrap exhaust pipes for cars, refrigerators, or any machine. brass knobs
Perovskite – cheap solar cell
Cost is the biggest obstacle to the development of renewable energy. Solar energy is becoming cheaper, but the cost and energy consumption of using crystalline silicon to make solar cells is still very high. In addition to crystalline silicon, there is an alternative material that can be used to make solar cells, that is perovskite.
Perovskite was discovered more than 100 years ago, but scientists have only begun to realize the potential of this material. In 2009, solar cells made with perovskite had 3.8% solar conversion. By 2014, this figure has risen to 19.3%. This may not be more than 20% of the energy efficiency of conventional crystalline silicon cells, but there are two other key points to consider: First, the energy efficiency of perovskites has increased dramatically in only a few years. , And scientists believe that this material is still possible to improve in the future; Second, the cost of perovskite is much lower.
Perovskites are a class of materials defined by a specific crystal structure. They can contain any number of elements. Lead and tin are typically used in solar cells. Compared to crystalline silicon, these raw materials are much cheaper and can be sprayed on glass without having to be carefully assembled in a clean room. brass knobs
Aerogel – ultra-light, super tough
Aerogels seem to be an unrealistic material. Although seemingly empty, it can easily withstand the heat of a blowtorch or the weight of a car. As the name implies, this is a colloidal liquid that is completely replaced by air, which is why it looks like a cloud of smoke. Aerogels can be made from any number of materials including silica, metal oxides, and graphene. Because air accounts for most of the weight, aerogel is also an excellent insulator. Its structure also gives it superior strength and toughness.
However, aerogels also have a fatal flaw: brittleness, especially when the raw material is silica. But NASA scientists have been experimenting with a flexible aerogel made of polymers as an insulating material for spacecraft when they pass through the atmosphere. Adding other compounds to the silica aerogel enhances its flexibility, coupled with its own lightness, toughness, and insulation, which will make it an incredible material. brass knobs
Metamaterials – Light Manipulators
If you’ve heard of metamaterials, you should mention “Harry Potter” and “Invisible Cloak” in the material that introduced it. Yes, nanostructures of metamaterials can scatter light in specific ways. In the future, it may actually make objects invisible.
More interestingly, metamaterials not only redirect visible light. Depending on the production method and material, metamaterials can also scatter microwaves, radio waves, and less-known T-rays. In fact, any kind of electromagnetic spectrum can be controlled by metamaterials.
For example, if you use a metamaterial to make a new T-ray scanner, its performance can be changed at any time, whether it is used in the medical or security field.
Stanene – material with 100% conductivity
Like graphene, Stanene is also a material made from a single atomic layer. However, due to the use of tin atoms rather than carbon atoms, this gives it the properties that graphene cannot achieve: 100% conductivity. brass knobs
Stanene was first theorized by Professor Zhang Shouyi of Stanford University in 2013. Predicting the electronic properties of materials such as Stanene is one of the areas that Prof. Zhang’s labs are good at. According to their model, Stanene is a topological insulator, that is, it has a conductor at the edge and an insulator at the interior. As a result, Stanene can conduct electricity with zero resistance at room temperature.
Stanene’s properties have not been tested experimentally – after all, making monolayer tin atoms is not an easy task – but Professor Zhang’s many predictions for other topological insulators have proven to be correct.
If the predictions for Stanene were also confirmed, it could have a revolutionary effect on the microchips inside all electronic devices. In other words, the performance of the chip will be greatly enhanced. Due to the heat generated by the electrons, the performance of the silicon chip is limited – if the operating speed is too fast, the heat will be too high – and Stanene with 100% conductivity will not have such a problem. brass knobs