CNC Machining and CNC Machine Tools, Industrial enterprise management

On the use of the words “carbon” and “coal”, we must master the use of steel!

The disagreement between the usage of carbon and carbon is caused by the domestic heat-processing workers: In order to improve the service life of ironmaking blast furnace hearths, carbon-fired refractory bricks are used; electric furnace steelmaking and molten salt electrolysis aluminum smelting require the use of Carbon electrodes are conductive; in order to resist acid, alkali, and high temperature, many furnace components require carbon fiber-containing products. Therefore, some scholars believe that since they are carbonaceous materials, the above products should be called “carbon bricks,” “carbon electrodes,” and “carbon fibers.” Another part of the scholars’ opinion is that China has had a long history of using the word “char”. The above articles should be called “carbon bricks,” “carbon electrodes,” and “carbon fiber.” As a result, the use of the terms “carbon” and “carbon” has caused controversy, which has caused the use of the terms “carbon” and “carbon” in domestic literature to be confusing. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

For example, in the “Materials Dictionary” published in 1994, carbon fiber was carbon fiber, and activated carbon fiber was activated carbon fiber. Carbon brick is a carbon brick, and activated carbon is activated carbon. Here carbon is translated as “carbon” or “charcoal”. How does this contradiction be solved? Is the word “carbon” or “charcoal” different? Is the difference different? Can the word carbon and carbon be canceled? These are all pending. The question of commercial decisions.

Carbon is a chemical element, carbon=100%C

The Chinese name of chemical element C is carbon, that is, carbon is 100%C. Carbon has three allotropes, namely amorphous carbon, graphite (hexagonal) and diamond (cubic). Each isoform has its own constant property.

Amorphous carbon is flammable in air, acts as a heat-generating agent and a reducing agent, and is electrically heated under a closed condition to 1500 to 2000° C. to obtain graphite. The degree of graphitization varies with the heating temperature and time. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Graphite is resistant to high temperatures and is not flammable in air, but sublimates and evaporates above 2000°C, and can also burn in oxygen. Graphite can conduct electricity, has high thermal conductivity, and is resistant to attack by acidic or alkaline solutions.

Transparent diamond has five brilliant colors and is the hardest substance. Diamond sand can be made into metal cutting tools.

There are three carbon isotopes, of which 14C archaeologists used to measure the history of historical artifacts.

The Scientific Meaning of “Charcoal” from Chemical Composition

The Shuren drilled wood took fire and the black remains that were not completely burned were called by the ancients as charcoal. Archaeologists have proved that people in the Spring and Autumn Period have known techniques for smelting bronze vessels, knives, and swords. Charcoal is used to heat natural copper, or to restore weathered copper-bearing minerals, yielding bronze castings. In the Warring States era, iron weapons were born. Because of the need for higher temperatures, iron ore can be reduced to iron. The Chinese also invented the use of coal to create coke kiln and produce coke as a heating and reducing agent. In this way, the charcoal, coal and coke fuels have been used for more than 2,000 years. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Then, what is the meaning of the word “char” from the chemical composition?

The raw material for burning charcoal is wood. Wood contains a large number of macromolecular organic compounds, mainly cellulose and lignin, as well as inorganic compounds, ash and moisture. Organic compounds grow through the atmosphere in the atmosphere, while ash is drawn from the soil. The reducing atmosphere in the charcoal kiln does not allow the wood to burn completely. Thermal decomposition of organic compounds into carbon, the so-called “carbonization”. The ash in the wood remains in charcoal. At the same time, charcoal absorbs moisture from the atmosphere during storage.

Charcoal contains H, O, N and other elements, indicating that charcoal still contains a small amount of volatile organic compounds. From the above chemical composition of charcoal, it is sufficient to say that charcoal is a mixture of carbon-based impurities containing a variety of inconstant components. At the same time, as the type of wood (cork or hardwood) varies, the carbon content of the charcoal burned varies depending on factors such as the same tree species, branches and trunks, and the uneven distribution of flame and temperature in the charcoal kiln. The ash in the charcoal contains various metal oxides, forms a silicate compound or dissolves into a solid solution. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Coal, formerly known as stone charcoal, is a deep-buried underground of ancient plant remains that has been produced through long-term, high-temperature, high-pressure coalification. Coal ash is derived from all the inorganic materials of the plant itself, and contains mineral impurities that are transported by wind or flowing water during the deposition process. As a result, coal ash content can be as high as 40%. There are many kinds of coal. The chemical composition of coal fluctuates within a wide range depending on the place of production, coal seam and coal mining face. Even at the same coal mining face, coal has different carbon content at different times. Coal ash still contains M nO, V 2 O 5, and trace amounts of rare metal oxides.

Coke is a flammable solid product refined from coking coal by carbonization (900-1050°C). The coking coal feed consists of four types of bituminous coal, namely coal gas, fat coal, coking coal and lean coal. Coke is a necessary raw material for blast furnace ironmaking. The coal material ratio can provide high-quality coke with low sulfur, low ash, high calorific value and high compressive strength required for blast furnaces. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

The above analysis of the chemical connotations of charcoal, coal, and coke shows that carbon and carbon cannot be equal. Their differences can be expressed by the following formula (1):

Carbon = carbon (amorphous carbon or graphite) + organic volatiles + inorganic ash + moisture (1)


Carbon = carbon (C) + C, H, O, N, S and other organics + SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO2, V2O3, SO3, P2O5 and other inorganics + moisture (2)

From the above, charcoal is a carbon-based mixture containing multiple impurities. There are two meanings of multiple impurities: First, there are many types of impurities, volatile organic compounds, ash components consisting of metal and non-metal oxides, and moisture. Second, the amount of impurities is considerable and fluctuates over a wide range. In particular, impurities of ash are difficult to separate from carbon that is independently present. Therefore, if carbon is a black flammable object, it is not very accurate. Because coke is silver-gray, some coals have metallic luster. Charcoal, coal, and coke are flammable because they contain amorphous carbon. When the latter is graphitized at a high temperature, it becomes resistant to high temperatures and hard to burn in the air. Therefore, flammability and flame retardancy are not carbon properties. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Carbonaceous products in industry should be called carbon products

Charcoal, coal, and coke can be called carbon materials based on the carbon and carbon relationship. Industrial carbon-containing products made from carbon materials should be called carbon products.

The raw materials for burning carbon-containing refractory bricks are either bituminous coal, coke or natural graphite (containing ash). With asphalt or inorganic binder, after being crushed, mixed, pressed and fired, fired bricks are fired, and the ash in the raw materials is all left in the brick. Because the temperature of the reducing flame in the kiln does not exceed 1000°C, it may be left behind. Part of the volatile organics, the carbon in the bricks also stays amorphous carbon, so the bricks must be cooled to room temperature before they can be carried out from the kiln, otherwise the red hot bricks will spontaneously ignite after being taken out. During the use of blast furnace kiln, the carbon in the brick will be gradually graphitized. Carbon-containing firebricks of this type are made of carbon materials, which of course should be called carbon bricks. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

The raw materials for preparing carbon-containing electrodes are the same as carbon bricks, and they should also be called carbon electrodes. The degree of graphitization of electrodes used in electric furnace steelmaking should be high, while self-baking carbon electrodes are gradually graphitized as they descend towards the electric furnace. The ash contained in the electrode melts into the slag during the smelting process in the electric furnace.

The carbon-containing fibers are mainly made from pyrolytic carbonization of various artificial fibers such as recycled fibers, synthetic fibers, and asphalt fibers. Fibrillation and carbonization are usually carried out in the atmosphere or inert gas. The gas contains dust, so a small amount of ash in the fiber cannot be removed. The amount of carbon contained in the fiber fluctuates in the range of 90 to 99%, depending on the raw material, the filament formation process, and the carbonization conditions (including temperature, carbonization rate, and environment). Carbon-containing fibers should be called “carbon fibers” in accordance with the custom. The woven products should be called carbon products, such as carbon cloth, carbon blankets and so on. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

The relationship between carbon and carbon in carbon fiber can be expressed by equation (3):

Carbon = carbon + organic compound (uncarbonized) and decomposed matter + inorganic matter (ash, from the environment) + moisture (absorption from atmosphere) (3)

Graphitized carbon fibers do not absorb water. Due to the high temperature, graphitized carbon fibers contain less uncarbonized organic compounds and decomposition products. The carbon black from pyrolytic carbonization of organic compounds, the relationship between carbon and carbon is also expressed by formula (3).

What nouns use “carbon”

The chemical element C (carbon) is combined with other elements to form carbon compounds such as calcium carbide, sodium carbonate, and the like. The term “carbon” is used for any compound noun involving element C. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

The carbon steel named after carbon is also called carbon steel. The latter is actually a translation of the plain carbon steel alloy. “Plain” means “simple”, indicating that it contains only carbon and no other alloying elements. The term “carbon” is used to study the relationship between carbon atoms, such as carbon bonds, carbon chains, and carbon rings.

In order to improve the wear resistance of the mechanical parts, carburizing method (cementation, carburizing) is adopted to increase the carbon content of the surface layer, and then the hardness is increased by the quenching heat treatment, thereby increasing the wear resistance. The method uses powdered charcoal (coke or anthracite) to cover the part to be hardened, and heating at a high temperature for a certain period of time, the carbon atoms in the charcoal diffused and dissolved in the iron atom to become austenite, but the inorganic ash in the charcoal is Left out (of course, organic matter and moisture in charcoal are volatile). This physical process is called carburizing and cannot be called charcoal. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

At the end of the conversion of converter steelmaking, the liquid steel contains less carbon. For high-carbon steels, powdered charcoal (coke or anthracite) is added to the molten steel in the ladle, carbon in the charcoal dissolves in the molten steel, and the ash therein dissolves into the slag. This physical process is called recarburization and cannot be called carbon addition.

Another example is the steelmaking process that reduces the oxidation of carbon in molten iron. This chemical reaction is called decarburization because it is a chemical reaction of carbon and oxygen.

As for the carbonization reaction (carbonization) in which the organic compound is thermally decomposed and deposited into carbon, the carbonization must not be called because the decomposition deposits carbon. The latter and the undecomposed original organic matter, the partially decomposed new organic matter, the inorganic ash introduced into the environment, and the water inhaled from the air, are combined to form a carbonaceous material. According to the convention of using words, the carbonaceous material with impurities is called ” Carbon material”, such as carbon black, activated carbon, and the like. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

High purity carbon and atomic carbon

“Gold is not full of redness”, an ancient saying. The natural gold that exists in nature contains silver and copper. Natural copper contains zinc and tin. The purest natural graphite still contains 3 to 4% ash. However, chemists often study various methods for refining the elements of the invention. For example, spectrally pure graphite electrodes are made from spectrally pure or high purity carbon. By “high purity” is meant higher purity than “chemically pure”, i.e. C greater than 99.9999% C, less than 1 ppm impurities, and is thus referred to as carbon. Raw petroleum coke is usually used as raw material.

The modern invention of carbon 60 (C60, fullerene, fullerene) is a spherical structure consisting of 60 to 70 carbon atoms. Some scholars have suggested that the 4th allotrope of carbon. However, there is no conclusion yet. Carbon nanotubes are carbon structures that are less than 50 nanometers in size and are self-clinching tubes with one to several carbon atoms. It is made by special methods, using high technology and equipment, under special conditions (high temperature, dustless vacuum or argon). CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Carbon and charcoal should be selected separately

Among the 109 elements that have been found, 11 of them are gaseous elements, such as hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, and argon. There are two kinds of liquid elements, namely bromine and mercury, both of which have “氵” and “水”. There are two types of solid elements, namely 10 types of non-metallic solid elements, such as boron, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and arsenic, all of which are accompanied by “stones”; 86 types of metal solid elements are gold, silver, and copper. Lead, zinc, iron, etc., except for gold, have the “gold” side. One of the main differences between non-metallic elements and metallic elements is: non-metal oxides and hydration of synthetic acids, their oxides are acidic; and metal oxides and hydration of synthetic hydroxides, their oxides are alkaline. The naming of elements with such regularity and systematicness is the pioneering work of our predecessor chemists and is conducive to learning chemistry. If the “carbon” is not used but only “carbon” is used, the regularity of chemical nomenclature is destroyed. Injuring the overall situation for one element seems unnecessary and inappropriate. If “carbon” is used in waste and “carbon” is used in all, then the word “char”, which has been used in China for more than 2,000 years, is ignored, and it does not conform to the meaning of simplified Chinese characters. Therefore, it is inappropriate to discard the word “char”. It is recommended that “carbon” and “charcoal” be selected separately according to the specific conditions mentioned above.

in conclusion

Based on the chemical composition and considering China’s national conditions, it is suggested that the two terms “carbon” and “carbon” be selected according to the following principles. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

1. Carbon is an element and carbon = 100%C.

The term “carbon” is used for all nouns involving chemical element C. Here are some examples:

(1) Carbon compounds such as calcium carbide, sodium carbonate and the like.

(2) Steel named carbon steel (also known as carbon steel).

(3) Structural chemical terms such as carbon bonds, carbon chains, carbocyclic rings, etc.

(4) C participating in physical processes such as carburizing and carbon addition.

(5) C participating in chemical reactions such as decarbonization and carbonization.

(6) 99.9999% C, such as pure spectrum carbon.

(7) Atomic class C, such as carbon 60, carbon nanotubes, etc.

2. Carbonaceous material for industrial use is called carbon material.

Carbon is a multi-impurity carbon-containing and carbon-based mixture characterized by: (1) The carbon content is not constant. (2) A variety of impurities. (3) The impurity content is not constant, but it is quite large and fluctuates over a wide range. (4) Physical and chemical properties are not constant. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

Carbon materials such as: charcoal, coal, coke, carbon black, activated carbon, carbon fiber and so on.

Carbon products such as: carbon brick, carbon electrode, carbon block, carbon brush, carbon fiber, carbon cloth, carbon blanket and so on.

3. The difference between “carbon” and “carbon” can be expressed by the following formula:

Carbon = carbon (amorphous carbon or graphite) + organics + inorganics + moisture

4. The English word “carbon” is translated into “carbon” or “charcoal” according to the above principles, such as carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, carbon black carbon black, and so on. CNC Machining: China & India – Get Your Quote – Gabrian International

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