In the Twentieth Century there is a kind of industrial production mode called Fu special, refers to the mass production mode, it originated in the United States Ford car; there is a production model called TOYOTA, also called lean manufacturing, this model from the TOYOTA automobile production experience, and the Japanese car industry after the 1970s can stand firm, vigorous with the development of TOYOTA’s system. China Manufacturer High-Quality CNC machining services near me
Chinese people to panic buying toilet cover, electric cooker upsurge once attracted people’s attention, this can not help people recall the last century in the 80s and 90s, a Japanese TV, washing machine and other household electrical appliances in the family set off in the Chinese fashion. “Made in Japan” seems to mean quality.
There is a saying that, thanks to the Japanese “artisan spirit”, they are diligent and earnest. Japanese the industrious image is strict in demands, formed by history, in the early Meiji industrial modernization, Japanese are lazy, undisciplined image. It is only in the production of modern industrialization, and create a new the workers’ image, and this image is also popular with Japanese made famous in the world. China Manufacturer High-Quality CNC machining services near me
In different historical periods, the advantages of industrial manufacturing in Japan are different, and their development patterns are different.
The Meiji era, Japan’s exports to silk, tea, we know that this is actually the main export commodities of traditional Chinese, but China accepts Western technology improved the time late, while Japan is the first step. Chinese Meiji Restoration, Japan imported from Chinese silk conventional production technology and then combined with the Western technology innovation improvement. In order to get ahead in the export market.
After the Japanese cotton textile industry. This is also the Treaty of Shimonoseki “, Japan opened a cotton textile factory in China Chinese, relying on the vast consumer market, Japanese companies earn a lot, it also suppressed the development of national capital Chinese. Although the national government to implement the tariff autonomy, these Japanese factories in the mainland, tariff then, what did not affect it.
The Japanese steel, so ships and other heavy industry, they focus on the absorption of Western technology, but at the same time very hard. In the Nagasaki shipyard of MITSUBISHI as an example, it Chinese and the Jiangnan manufacturing bureau is in the same field of enterprise, also from the western production technology and management experience.
After Meiji is a war, this period China, Japan’s textile industry and other industries have been developed. In the 20s and 30s, the Japanese economy has two yuan, which is the rapid development of heavy industry, light industry. Beyond the beginning of the beginning of the war, the Japanese heavy industry by leaps and bounds, the light industry has developed, but relatively lags behind at that time a heavy industry. The development situation of light industry, some textile enterprises to the requirements of the situation, from the production of light industrial products and production of heavy industrial products, such as some enterprises producing the textile machine, and the production of military equipment. In turn
After the Second World War, Southeast Asian countries have been independent, abundant and cheap labor, and light industry to be developed, compared with traditional Japanese textile industry gradually become stagnant. In addition to South Korea, Hongkong and other places outside of Taiwan China, the impact of the United States in order to protect their market of Japanese textile industry has seen from another limit. Also, the postwar Japanese traditional textile industry is fading, but it turned to the field of chemical fiber development, the Japanese textile industry in this period from labor-intensive to capital intensive.
Japanese industry is a complex ecosystem, with heavy industry, light industry, its internal and different segments of the industry. If you want to talk about how the rise of Japanese industry, or Japanese industrial characteristics, in fact, specific to different industries, the development model of development, its operation rules, and the successful experience are not the same.
Why can Japanese manufacturing industry succeed? Why can Japanese cars and appliances become a typical industrial product in a certain period? The role of enterprises, governments and business groups cannot be ignored.
In the past, when talking about the Japanese economy or the Japanese manufacturing industry to rise, different schools of scholars often see is the dominant factor, such as a chaebol, such as the government. These two forces are very important for the Japanese economy and Japanese manufacturing industry, but only emphasize one point, and can not fully explain.
The reason why Japanese enterprises have advantages in technology, management, and other aspects, before China development step, is mainly due to the support of the enterprise consortium. Because the capital can support larger sales network, and promote the development of Japanese textile industry. By contrast, the national capital is weak, then Chinese scholars have to see this.
Although Japan was democratized and reformed after the war, the chaebol forces were destroyed, but the ties between them were still there. This did play a great role in the rise of Japanese industry. But on the other hand, we must also see. Japan’s top companies, like Toyota and Honda, are actually not traditional chaebol. Toyota’s success is not dependent on traditional chaebol, though in the process of development. Toyota and chaebol enterprises also have inextricably linked.
But how did Toyota survive in a less favorable economic environment before it formed a climate? This brings us to the role played by the Japanese government in the 1920s and 1930s.
At that time, the Japanese government wanted to support the development of domestic cars and to subsidize the auto industry. The problem is that, despite receiving government subsidies, Japanese cars still cost more on the market than American cars. And with the technology behind, consumers don’t want to buy home-made cars at all, and no Japanese company wants to make cars, even if a company like Toyota is interested in making machinery itself. Or if it has the nationalist sentiment of an industry to serve the country, how can it survive if it cannot win the market and make a profit? However, in the early stages of Japanese cars, the Japanese government and the military have indeed given a great deal of strength to support this cause. Therefore, if we consider such fields as automobiles, military industries, and so on, how can Japanese-made products rise up? The role of government cannot be ignored.
Japan once put forward a theory called “wild goose travel theory,” saying that there are advanced countries in the world, middle entry countries, and backward countries and that Japan is a middle entry country, which is no better than Europe and the United States, but stronger than China and Southeast Asia. How can Japan enter the ranks of advanced countries? Japan has made a distinction between the two markets. On the one hand, it exports raw silk and other light industrial products to Europe and the United States, and imports heavy chemical products, such as lathes; At the same time, it exports all kinds of industrial products and imports raw materials to backward countries. Japan’s industrial products cannot win the European and American markets for a certain period of time, and it is sold to backward countries and colonies.
Mechanical products, such as Japan’s locomotive, locomotive, at the start, very dependent on imported technology from the United States, if the sale of equity, its products are sold in the United States but, but false in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan Chinese, Japanese colony, here is the Japanese market. We must improve technology in machinery manufacturing continuous production, in order to maintain manufacturing market needs, the government of Japan through colonial expansion, the development of Japan’s manufacturing industry, it is really very important.
Japanese society is also controversial, some people say that cars don’t make cars is not good, the development of shirts, socks, toys and other advantages of light industry. At that time the Japanese financial sector is in favor of this view, but the industry does not agree, is the government support the development of manufacturing industry claims. Furthermore, from the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, see the rise of the Japanese economy, the Japanese government has protection policy on the domestic industry, but also restrict foreign investment, is very alert and rejection for foreign investment. China Manufacturer High-Quality CNC machining services near me
Of course, it doesn’t mean that government support can be successful, for example, Japan’s semiconductor hardware vendors are very strong, but in developing new information technology field, though Japanese government wants to nurture, it is still not as successful as its traditional manufacturing industry.
The automobile is one of the most important products sold in Japan all over the world. When it comes to why Japanese products can occupy the market and what characteristics they have, Toyota Motor is a typical Japanese industry.
In the 20th century, the industrial production model, management has such a theory, a production model called Ford system, refers to mass production, born out of the United States Ford Motor; Another mode of production is called Toyota, also known as lean manufacturing, and Japanese cars have taken the strong foothold and flourished since the 1970s. This model comes from Toyota’s production experience.
Cars were born by hand, such as the British auto industry, which had to admit that craftsmen were skilled, but in this way, there were no identical cars. The core of Forte was standardization. Parts can be interchangeable, using the income production line to mass production, once the scale effect, the price can be sold cheap. This car market is large but also easy to repair. The drawback is that pipeline’s subdivision of each process is boring, monotonous, and mass production needs a large investment, it is not easy to switch models, because once the car manufacturers to introduce new models. Need to replace a complete set of the production pipeline, the cost is very high.
With the popularity of cars and consumers’ desire for more variety and individuality, the Ford system is difficult to adapt to, and the advantages of lean manufacturing are highlighted, colloquially. Lean manufacturing is a combination of manual manufacturing and forte. Ford emphasizes the role of machines, while lean manufacturing emphasizes the role of human beings.
It’s important to note that not all Japanese automakers have lean manufacturing models. Toyota is a typical example.
After the war, Toyota went to the Ford factory in the United States to learn experience, but they did not adopt the Ford system but created the Toyota system for two reasons.
On the one hand, Toyota thinks that there is a waste in the picturesque mode of production. Because it is a whole car produced well, then carry on the quality inspection, once which link goes wrong. The whole car may be scrapped, and Toyota plays a human role. Workers can stop when they find a problem in a certain process, and the problem can be corrected in the process of production and assembly.
Japan, on the other hand, was unable to implement the Ford system at the time, because mass production required large investments, large production depended on large markets, and Toyota had no money for mass-produced equipment. And production is pitifully small, with Toyota selling very little in Japan’s consumer market after World War II.
How does Toyota survive in the consumer market?
In addition to Toyota’s low waste rate, short and flexible cycle and easy introduction of new models, Toyota pays more attention to its customers. American automakers are not worried about sales because of the large market. The level of attention to users is not high. And Japanese auto manufacturers need to return customers, usually and users of emotional contact, collect opinions do very well. In addition. Toyota has a much closer relationship with parts makers than American companies, and some scholars call it “strategic outsourcing”, a bit of “all the glory.” The feeling of “all is lost”. If such suppliers make products that strive for excellence, then the products will have an advantage when they are assembled as a whole. However, this advantage was not reflected in Toyota’s initial venture.
It was probably 60s when Toyota began selling to the U. S. market when dealers in the United States called it the “coffin of activity,” and Toyota did not do well in all aspects, such as quality. For a while, Toyota was even about to pull out of the U.S. market. But it survived, building on the experience of Japan’s domestic market to improve the car.
In 1973, the oil crisis was an opportunity for Japanese cars to win the market in the United States. When the United States developed the auto industry, it was still a big oil country, so it did not think too much about fuel consumption. The Middle East limits oil exports, which is a surprise for the American auto industry. In this case, Japanese cars have a small displacement. The advantages of fuel economy have been highlighted. In 1979, after the second oil crisis, the advantages of Japanese cars became even more obvious. Since then, Japanese cars have taken a place in the United States market.
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