One, the United States: emphasizing procedural, standardized
With the development of modern industry started, revitalization and development, “the end of the master apprentice” era, the birth of the modern production and quality management system. In the case of the United States, the United States has always attached great importance to the quality management of enterprises, the quality management originated in Taylor, experienced quality inspection, statistical quality control, total quality management, Markham wave Ricci award in 4 stages, designated here focuses on Markham wave Ricci award beyond.
In 1980s, Japanese products due to high quality and inexpensive inroads into the U.S. and occupy a large number of American products market, the American enterprise great touch, determined to learn the successful experience of quality management of Japanese enterprises. It is in this context, the United States government decided to set up a national quality award for.1987 years, the United States issued Makem Poridge national quality award, the main prize suitable for 3 types of enterprises: one is the manufacturing industry, service industry is two (based on sales of three, judge) are small enterprises (employees less than 500 people). The awarding standard is very strict, the 2 winners of each enterprise every year.
The core of Markham, Baldrige Award is the surpassing, is divided into two steps: the first step, analysis the enterprise compared with the same period of history has made much progress, it can inspire the enterprises continue to move forward. The second step, the enterprise wants to obtain great progress, we must continue to compare, the best performance of enterprises and the enterprises with the performance of the industry to find out the gap, and then catch up, this is beyond the point.
Since the Makem Poridge prize, American companies have CF Markham, Baldrige Award winner for the gap, then the surpassing, the product quality is greatly improved in.20 90s, the American enterprise re established on Japanese corporate competitive advantage, Makem Borri prize beyond the singular point is one of the important factors of American enterprise quality success.
Two, Japan: emphasis on autonomy, initiative
At the beginning of twentieth Century, the Japanese enterprise product quality is not good, synonymous in the minds of people are fake and shoddy products, then Japanese China advocating “Shanghai goods”. However, by 80s, people rushed to buy the products of Japanese enterprises, Japanese goods has become a symbol of high quality products. Japanese companies, from inferior products to high-quality products, only dozens of years before and after the interval, the quality of the products changed so much, people in the discussion: what is the secret of the success of Japanese enterprise quality management?
The quality management of Japanese enterprises success, thanks to the famous American quality management expert Edward Deming.1951 Deming, Japan set up the national quality award. The award is mainly for domestic manufacturing enterprises, the awarding standard is very strict, the award-winning enterprises every year up to 1 ~ 2; Japan said Deming Award for “Nobel Award”.
Deming’s quality management thought is embodied in PDCA (P– plan, plan, D–do, execution, C–check, check, A-act, processing) cycle:
1, the planning stage; see what problems need to be improved, itemized, find out the most need to improve the problem
2, the implementation phase, implementation of the improvement, and collect the corresponding data
3, check the stage, evaluate the effect of improvement, speak with the data, see whether the actual result is consistent with the original goal
4, the treatment stage, if the improvement effect is good, then to promote; if the improvement effect is not good, then the next cycle
The characteristics of PDCA cycle are: ring ring, corporate headquarters, workshop, team, employees can be PDCA circulation, identify problems to seek improvement; stepped up, after the end of the first cycle, then enter the cycle of more advanced next; again, never stop. Dai Mingqiang continuously improve quality, to improve the product and the process is regarded as a never-ending process, continue to receive little progress.
Deming “s great influence on quality management of Japanese companies, Japanese companies have used PDCA cycle to find their own problems, and then improve the quality of products. The Japanese original and developed the QCC (qualitycontrolcircle), QCC (QCC) event was a huge success in Japan, Japan can quickly rise from the ruins after World War II. The record of the economic miracle, largely due to their original QCC (QCC) effectively promote the activity of.QCC, so that all employees are involved in management, improve, on the one hand to stimulate the enthusiasm of the staff, and enhance the enterprise cohesion, create a positive corporate culture; on the other hand also trained a large number of the talents for the enterprise, is the solid foundation for the stable development of enterprises, greatly enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. After decades of efforts, by the middle of 80s when the Japanese economy reached the most glorious period, its products such as cars, home Juran, a famous quality management expert, has evaluated Japan’s economic miracle as follows: “Japan’s economic revitalization is a successful quality revolution”
Three, the United States and Japan quality management characteristics comparison
The Deming cycle emphasizes the independent, active management, that is, based on the internal enterprise; detailed analysis of the current major problems existing in the enterprise, and then improved, characterized by self transcendence
Markham, Baldrige Award emphasizes program management, pay attention to quantitative index, which is based on the outside of the enterprise, compare the performance and the most outstanding peer enterprise business performance, to find out the gap to improve, is surpassing.
In fact, US companies are looking for the gap, only to find the gap in different ways; Japanese enterprises through the Deming cycle, and their comparison, find out the existing problems, and then self transcendence; American companies with outstanding enterprises to find the gap, and then surpassing. Finally, the enterprise in quality management have been successful.
Why, the quality management of enterprises in the way of a world of difference, but got the same result? Which originates from the East and west of different cultural backgrounds: Japanese enterprises rooted in the oriental culture, influenced by Confucianism China, emphasis on “consciousness”, “culture”, “health care to justice, and so their own you can find the gap, and then improved; the American enterprise belongs to the category of western culture, emphasizing the role of the system, it is difficult to find their own problems, only through the supervision of others can find themselves the problem, and therefore to outstanding enterprises to find out the gap, and then surpassing.
Four, the US and Japan quality management implications
50 in the 20 century, great changes have taken place in the market, from the seller’s market to buyer’s market gradually. In this situation, quality management experts put forward the idea of total quality management, the contents are as follows: first, the overall quality, including product quality, service quality, cost and quality; secondly, the quality of the whole process that means the whole process of quality throughout the production, with the quality of work to ensure the quality of the products; thirdly, full participation in the quality, the quality of education for employees, emphasizing full control, composed of quality management team; fourthly, the quality of the whole enterprise. The purpose is to establish quality assurance system. Therefore, the comprehensive quality management emphasizes dynamic quality always constantly seeking to improve, but it is not standardized, there is no uniform standard. Therefore, enterprises in the implementation of total quality management is the key to the success of a profound understanding of total quality management in According to the specific situation of the enterprise, a feasible quality management plan is worked out
Deming stressed that the cycle of self management, active management, while the Americans just lack of initiative, so the quality management of Deming’s thought began in the United States abandoned the implementation of enterprise. However, Japanese was deeply influenced by the oriental culture, rich initiative, with himself, will be able to find the problem, so Deming’s thought of quality management is very suitable for Japan enterprise, Japanese enterprise using PDCA cycle made product quality leap in progress.
American companies believe that their problems themselves are difficult to find how to find their own problems? By others. Tom Mark, supervision point beyond the American Baldride Quality Award for enterprise, an enterprise wants to make progress, we must continue to compare the most outstanding enterprises of the enterprise’s performance with the performance of the industry, to that gap, then the implementation of improvement.
It should be said that day, the enterprises attach great importance to learning, only learning methods are different. Japanese companies through self-criticism and self realization, and the Deming cycle is an important means of self criticism. American companies believe that the internal motivation to learn from external competition pressure, how to feel the strong external competition pressure through the criticism of others? Markham, and point – beyond the Baldrige Award is an important way to listen to criticism. In short, the Japanese enterprises, through the Deming cycle to achieve the “self-criticism”; American enterprise, through Makem Poridge’s point beyond Ning “others criticism”. Through criticism and self-criticism, beauty, Japanese companies have won the the credibility of the quality is very high.