“Quality consciousness” is an enterprise staff awareness and understanding of the quality and quality of work, directly affect the quality of the management behavior of the enterprise. At present, China’s rapid economic development, enterprises of all types of employees increased rapidly, coupled with individual enterprises only the pursuit of economic interests, regardless of social influence, and even encourage employees to make damage to the interests of customers things in the current national supervision system is not perfect, these enterprises mistakes cannot be timely and effectively stopped, or initially only need to bear the cost of very little mistakes can obtain high profits, has a great impact on other social enterprises, and even the loss of consumer confidence in the industry as a whole (such as dairy products industry).
Successful enterprises are always able to learn from the failure of others, and some enterprises closed down and gradually increase the quality of the cost to us sounded the alarm, we are pleased to see, many enterprises began to pay more attention to quality
Improve the quality awareness of employees, so as to improve the quality of enterprise management level has attracted the attention of entrepreneurs. But for how to improve the quality awareness of employees, is this meeting the readers Public opinions are divergent., column, in a spirit, and discuss how to improve the quality awareness of employees.
Our research finds that the quality awareness of employees high enterprise has five characteristics: the quality of leadership attaches great importance to employees; get quality education and training in full; have clear quality objectives and evaluation system for each of the tasks, employees are highly satisfied with work; work performance of employees has been incentive details are as follows:
Leadership is the key to participate in Chinese often speak of “follow suit”, meaning the people love to do, the people will follow what to do. A company that only when the leaders began to pay attention to quality, employees can pay attention to quality. The study found that excellent enterprise leaders have the following responsibilities in terms of quality, including the establishment of quality management committee, quality strategic planning, participate in quality improvement activities, the expression of the importance of quality to employees (the focus of this paper is to illustrate the quality awareness of the content, so it will not be the strategic quality management process management activities, just focus on the senior leadership to staff to express the importance of quality are introduced).
Dr. Juran proposed in twenty-first Century is the century of quality, we see that the quality has really changed the way people work, the concept of quality under the guidance of high quality: the quality of the range (in addition to product quality, including service quality, work quality, performance and so on. The company is closely related to the quality of the company and the performance of the quality target is not only the product quality objectives, including the company’s operating performance), senior managers really began to care about the quality, use the theory and method of quality management to the management and operation of enterprises (for example: from the beginning of six Sigma quality planning quality control strategy implementation, finally obtained the quality strategy results).
There are many successful examples of how senior leaders express the importance of quality to employees. In addition to being personally involved in strategic quality management activities, we will present some related cases:
Haier refrigerator smashing event. In the middle of 80s, Haier had been “smashing refrigerator event, Zhang Ruimin on a quality first class to all employees, for employees, to create products like their children, smashing into scrap metal” is tantamount to ruin your life, from every employee they feel that the quality is very important, but no one has thought of, a hit could hit a world top 500 enterprise.
A tire factory had their defective tire for sale, of course, this treatment is based on defect does not affect the safety of the product, these defective tire sales accounted for a large share of the sales revenue of the company, as a company of the quality plan, the company decided to stop selling defective tires. This policy to the employees with a strong “quality first” creed.
Leadership and personally participate in quality management training can also play a good effect, such as GE Jack Welch in promoting Six Sigma management, not only to participate in training, and personally led the team to do six sigma project, Six Sigma Green Belt qualification to six sigma in the successful implementation of GE has a very good effect, has been the pass from mouth to mouth with approbation.
Quality improvement will reduce rework, improve efficiency, promote the continuous improvement activities in an organization, many employees are aware of the quality improvement will indeed increase business income, make enterprises bigger and stronger, so as to create more jobs, but at the same time, they also worry, reduce errors or other forms of waste may reduce the work the position, they often murmured: “I participate in the quality improvement activities, will make their own unemployment?”
Two, quality education
Changes in employee quality concept when people think of something important, people will do their best to do it well, for example, I often travel because of the working relationship, sometimes do long-distance train, at the head of the middle of the night, I have my spirit, is the concept of computer can not be discarded, otherwise the massive data no see, suffered heavy losses, that is to say the most important computer, this time there is can’t sleep; but when the night, really sleepy after the concept becomes the most important body, go to sleep, even if the computer is lost also can earn money to buy, then fall asleep. This is an example of the concept of decision behavior, when employees think that quality is very important, he will devote every effort to ensure the quality.
Such as the recent successful launch of Chang’e two, when we just find some people to ask the Chang’e two can appear quality problem, the answer is absolutely not a problem! Why, because the Chang’e two investment is large, if there are problems, will cause immeasurable loss!
Indeed, Chang’e two is not just a quality issue, it’s a political issue, so everyone knows it can’t go wrong!
Look below a case, Taiwan funded enterprises, an electronic industry for Dell, Siemens, Lenovo, HP and other OEM customers, but also the production of own brand products, there is a strange phenomenon here is to Siemens, Dell and other requirements do OEM high customer, we are very seriously. Manufacturing, quality is also very good, but in the domestic production of customer products or brand products, is like a team like quality, plummeted, why? Because the company leadership does not stop education staff, can not go wrong absolutely to large foreign OEM customers to do product, error a large number of claims will face fines and so on, so we all know, these customers to do product, must be wrong, so it appears the phenomena mentioned above.
From the above examples can be seen that the quality management in education at education, this sentence is not false, as we have always stressed that quality is important, the staff will realize the importance of quality, so as to produce high quality products. So we should pay attention to what the quality education?
The organization’s senior management, we should pay attention to using the language of money for quality education. To establish the quality consciousness of senior management, to the quality and profits hook to hang, should emphasize to them the quality of what impact the sales revenue and cost reduction opportunities, only when the quality and profits senior management personnel, will take substantive measures. For example, in the field of civilian products, a quality problem seems to have little effect, can give customers a replacement, what’s the big deal? But do not know, be shocked. In 1950s, the emergence of the concept of quality cost, study shows and in many industrial enterprises, the quality cost even more than 20% of sales revenue, this figure exceeded the expected cost of Quality Manager (Juran Quality Handbook: Manufacturing in general sales revenue 5%–35% Change range), we study the electronic industry listed company’s annual report, you can find many years sales of billions of enterprises, only the warranty cost is 3-5 billion, some companies the warranty cost even more than the net! The equivalent of a similar size enterprise in virtual work, which is how much waste ah!
For the middle managers and employees of the organization, you need to emphasize the relationship between the quality and stability of their position, such as a production enterprise of some consumer goods within a year to give up the use of the products to consumers to do a survey, found that within a year there are about 430000 of consumers to give up the product, and with its competitors, the company lost a lot of customers. These customers, about 1/3 of the people said that because of the quality of the products they can replace the product (the reason is because of the price and other factors of the 4 times). This can be worked out, due to the quality problem of the loss of Sales Revenue $1 billion 300 million, this income could provide 2000 jobs, this data is equivalent to one of the company’s subsidiaries, the total number of employees.
Three, quantitative management
Product quality improvement objectives and evaluation system of the first to develop clear quality objectives and evaluation system of all levels of the organization, in this process, we need to formulate the task of target tissue and its evaluation method, determine the key factors to the quality strategy of the organization.
The measurement of quality can not only provide some important information for the staff to complete their work, but also let staff always maintain the quality awareness of the enterprise. For example an electronic plug-in section of the example, this section will statistical staff plug-in error rate data, when an employee work errors, will immediately back to the he, and the real bad for him, if conditions permit, and even make his own repairs, by this way, the staff can know their mistakes in the work, and immediately correct, to achieve the purpose of improving the quality.
In addition to the timely feedback of individuals, some enterprises will use some visual chart to show a change in the status of some key quality indicators, which can vividly illustrate the current situation of company quality, for example, in the key process by using color management to timely display quality — red quality does not meet the requirements in yellow the edge of the state, said green meets the requirements.
Must choose carefully the evaluation standards in order to bring a positive impact on the quality of products, the formulation of productivity evaluation standard is a negative example, we usually use the ratio of output and input to calculate productivity, some companies will use the total output (not up to quality standard output) to calculate the productivity, while calculating the total the output is a necessary work, but also to the staff to pass a message: whether the products meet the quality standards specified is not important, we must change the rigid calculation method, the calculation only conforms to the standard output, in order to show that the management emphasis on quality.
The evaluation and quality is directly related to the performance appraisal, when it comes to improve the quality of awareness of the problem, some users believe that poor quality awareness requires only a strict assessment of the employee can be solved, this is actually a misunderstanding of the purpose of performance appraisal. The performance appraisal of the real purpose is to help employees identify deficiencies and improvement at the same time, can also be through the performance appraisal to motivate employees better, achieve higher performance in Eastman Chemical Industry, or even cancel the original performance appraisal system, and use the “employee development system” to replace, also achieved good results.
Four, work design
Focus on employee development and employee empowerment in quality improvement work enthusiasm, depends largely on the nature of his work. Hackman and Alderman (hackmanandoldham, 1980) research on work characteristics, points out 5 characteristics of a job satisfaction should have. Table 1 shows that these workers feature rich and act, we can work through the design so that employees love their work, and are willing to put in the effort to improve the quality of the work.
Since the invention of the Taylor system, boring specialization makes employees feel more and more work, the diversity degree of diversity and diversity of research work included Hackman and Alderman’s work management success stories feature definition take corresponding skills needed for the activities and the required staff Technology and talents. Expansion of horizontal working: a few work with an original, let employees to complete the.Toyota, multi skilled training, u production line tasks of staff should be clear from A to Z responsible for work, and you can see the obvious output. The working reasonable classification, according to the customer. According to Toyota, the value stream manager Haier, everyone is the importance of SBU employees work with what kind of impact on the external and internal customer. Provide employees with customers directly in hand Opportunities for flow Haier, everyone is independent of the SBU work to expand workers greater autonomy in the work of vertical planning and execution: give workers greater autonomy Toyota, fully authorized employees can decide to stop the line.Nissan, mini-ceo feedback to keep workers can see their work directly establish feedback system to provide direct information feedback.Toyota, visual management system can compensate for the lack of Taylor, Hackman and Alderman also said that not all people are willing to engage in more challenging work, so in the design work to specific analysis of specific cases, but we put people to prevent him no love or not good at the post.
Another main purpose of job design is the formation of self management team, self management team is in a special way to expand the work team, this team has a characteristic: (1) each worker went through a rigorous training, with a variety of skills, able to work with a group of exchange; (2) job autonomy, with production planning and supervision work done right.
When an enterprise useful team and trained with regularity of employees can be trained with regularity, to fully empower employees and teams, authorization means not only the devolution of power to the staff, but also means to encourage employees to take the initiative to work to expand the scope of their work, improve their working ability and technology.
When employees get more authority at work, right to work and the sense of responsibility will make it work harder. At the same time to the authorized staff also reflects the trust in management of employees, so as to change the relationship between staff and leadership, we are willing to make efforts for the common goal, form the culture of continuous improvement.
Authorization will bring to redefine the role and function of the tissue layers. For example, in a bank, they are such a division of labor:
The senior managers act as shapers and mentor. Shapers responsible for defining the mission of the company and passed to the employees; they should be given the necessary help to guide those difficulties in the middle managers.
The middle manager out of the job, as a coordinator, they played a key role, but also to help employees solve their problems.
The employee is the main producer of the final product, do they need to master the necessary knowledge, at the same time according to their mandate to decide how to complete the work it is worth noting that, to empower the employees at the same time, the management also should provide the necessary information, feedback and regulate employee work means.
We look at a case in Nissan company of Japan, their full authorization for staff, each production line in the company and even every production line are responsible for the production line of its own profit and loss, every employee has their own is the boss’s attitude (mini-ceo), all of them are generalists, with production management equipment, management, personnel management, safety management, quality management, materials management, a full set of skills, they did their best to create profits through manufacturing, senior managers only need to provide them with necessary advice.
On the staff of the recognition and reward of staff performance outstanding recognition, reward the employees performance, material rewards, recognition and reward of employees by means of recognition, will greatly improve the quality of staff working enthusiasm. Drucker said a word: employees will determine their incentive to invest according to when we started the incentive behavior, the outstanding performance of staff in terms of quality, will undoubtedly bring a good effect on improving the quality awareness of employees.
For there are many forms, can be a written recognition, or symbolic rewards, such as star group of star quality assessment activities, the quality of the star is called “super quality pacesetter”, give them encouragement is free to travel abroad.
The reward is more varied, such as an electronic enterprise, established a quality fund, each producing a quality product fund to increase 125 yuan, an unqualified fund to reduce the 500 yuan, the customer did not return a defective fund to reduce 600 yuan, at the end of each quarter, the company will to fund the remaining money reward has contributed to individual and team quality, also achieved good results.
To sum up, we believe that as long as we can grasp the above points, we can improve the quality consciousness of employees, and form a good quality culture