What is the essence of TOYOTA management?
The management of TOYOTA, is lean. However, two so simple words, TOYOTA study hard for 30 years, from 1950s to 1980s. The founder of the Ono Chi, are now dead.
Clear human nature — affirm the thinking ability of the first line employees, let employees not only with their hands to work
Japanese 30 years of research, from the “lean”, the development emphasis on real-time TOYOTA production system (TPS, Toyota Production System) system and improve overall quality (TQM, Total) Quality Management) two complex management system. On the surface, this is a never-ending process improvement, advertising management, zero inventory system the., reduce the cost.
But it is the most unbelievable, so that each employee not only with both hands to work, even with the brain. This is called a herd of elephants to dance more difficult. Because of this, the company employs more than 260 thousand people, and 52 of all over the world. At the same time, they don’t like technology companies, with high stock bonus carrot, hanging in front of the staff.
After all, how does TOYOTA drive employees to work with their heads?
This is a clear human results. Most of the enterprises can respect people, give good benefits. However, TOYOTA is thinking of giving the highest degree of certainty, “nobody love yourself just screw, work just followed orders, immutable and frozen, do not know why TOYOTA is busy, doing is very simple. That is true for employees space of thinking and wisdom leads them.” the TOYOTA production mode Yenai left this invention’s words in the book.
They believe that the front-line workers, is the understanding of the problem. But experts, the traditional operation, let employees and managers ignore the first-line workers release energy. “Employees devote valuable time to the company, if not properly use their wisdom, it is a waste,” this is the famous Ono Chi.
Too many companies don’t find employees’ resources and listen to employees’ inner voices. “We’ve learned too much about the importance of organizational systems and leadership skills, but forget to go back to basics, from a human perspective”
However, the paradox of TOYOTA management is that it is not only human nature, but also human nature, which is not employee’s own company after all
As Stephen Covey said, there are four people can: intelligence, body, emotion and spirit. Most enterprises only barely used to the previous two kinds to employees, but TOYOTA has developed behind the two. Changed the habits of people at ease, do not want to leave the comfort zone habit, to guide the growth of employees, and constantly challenge their own.
Pursue the extreme – use actuarial to delete waste and excess inventory, requiring employees to work instead of action”
Japan’s TOYOTA took thirty years, is in a “lean” consciousness of the revolution.
Their first step is to establish the emphasis on real-time TOYOTA production mode — TPS. later found a key management tool, easy to build. However, results to a certain extent, will encounter bottlenecks. The key is to continue to grow the company, employees of the head are changed.
Later, they delve into a comprehensive quality improvement system — TQM, this project is the second stage. The second stage is very difficult, the leader need great determination and perseverance, because it must make the whole company of the world without end pursuit of improvement can not be stopped.
Harvard Business Review > so comments: “TOYOTA is one of the most terrible, the principle of power, a pursuit of the ultimate thinking, rather than the production of tools and methods.” Japanese economic news also said: “TOYOTA has a challenge to the ultimate reform of gene enterprises”
With a number, you can know the power to pursue. In Taiwan, the bad rate of the electronics industry is 5/1000 to 10/1000. In TOYOTA, the figure is seven per million
The pursuit of the ultimate thinking, in the process of two different industries, see another strength. Research TOYOTA management for many years, McKinsey director Ke Ke, compared TOYOTA automobile manufacturing process and credit card issuing process
In terms of components, the car has 30000 parts, data processing and consumer applications for credit card companies only 50; in complexity between objects, the car factory must with 450 companies between parts, and downstream between credit card companies (consumers, only two banks); although the face components and between more complex objects, but TOYOTA makes a car less than 100 employees, but the credit card it takes 150 people.
At the time, TOYOTA can do 10 hours in a car, but credit card issuers need 4 to 6 days. Ke Ruiming asked: “you say, if a credit card companies can be referred to the same level of efficiency, it can bring much more for his customers? Save much cost?”
The details of the lean management is calculated to hammer nails. For example, for TOYOTA, reaching for the hammer is of no significance, must try to shorten the time or even eliminate, because only the hammer the nails latte that moment, have value.
The system design of TPS, is to remove unnecessary waste, it contains the real-time production (JIT), pull type and cell type (CELL) production concept. To conform to the contract purpose, does not produce excess inventory, don’t waste extra manpower, how many customers need not reproduction, as most companies today a large number of production, after waiting for the customers, waste of inventory cost.
As a result, into the TOYOTA factory, the production is different from the traditional production to see. One hour after the products are not allowed to appear in the next part, environment is relaxed. A long belt disappeared into type U workstation small, employees no longer like in the past, only to do the same things began to work. Responsible for more functions previously Ono Chi believes that it is not called “work”, it is called “action”.
Because of the precision, the key is that you have to pick out the devil in the process. It’s a spirit, not just a management tool
This word, in the implementation of management, produced many of TOYOTA’s enterprise value. Including one multi task, to find the answer on the spot, error (because of the need to constantly explore, improve). Thus, when the floor leakage occurs, TOYOTA executives will spend half an hour with the staff of the discussion, rather than spend five minutes curse, or oil rubbed off the trouble.
Carry out the spirit, regard mistakes as the material of success, enhance the personal accomplishment through the proposal system
If the machine is leaking, why did it happen? If the answer is why the machine liner wear, wear? If the material is not good, why buy this liner? If cheaper, why buy this cheap products? Haven’t thought about security? The answer is that, because the organization to save short-term costs as the reason for the performance evaluation of the procurement unit, TOYOTA will thus modify the system, for the procurement department performance evaluation is fundamentally solved.
With the brain thinking is not enough, but also observed by eyes. TOYOTA employees to find the answer in the field! Former TOYOTA President Zhang Fushi husband often standing in the factory, a station for half an hour, observation of each process. Sometimes even directly to climb under the machine. Many new TOYOTA engineers, entered the company will be sent to the dealer two a month to learn the problems and needs of customers.
“Too many people have the knowledge, but going into action, will become wisdom.” the famous word of Ono Chi are still TOYOTA people look up to as the standard.
To be deep enough, to get more widely. The collaborative design of TOYOTA, advocated by the engineers and manufacturing personnel together in the field to study how to further improve the design to facilitate the operation, the two sides can agitate more creative engineers not only focus on their ideas. The most difficult is that manufacturing personnel will have a sense of achievement, that they are valuable.
Let employees feel their own value, TOYOTA more comprehensive quality improvement system (TQM) proposal system to strengthen it. In TOYOTA, as small as how to save a screw, can be rewarded
TOYOTA in Taiwan Guorui factory as an example, there are 3500 proposals per month on average, each employee at least 1.2 proposals, the rate reached more than 8, 14 proposals to improve the planning level of bonuses last year. Guorui made nearly 4 million yuan (NT) bonus, reduce the cost of 8 million yuan. Under the working time of 10 thousand hours.
Money is not the main cause of TOYOTA improvement, the bonus amount is not high, sometimes only a few hundred dollars, but you will have a sense of achievement, because of being a public award. Its proposal is standardized, in the implementation of life around, feel a lot in the past have not create value, the improvement becomes a habit.
Through the affirmation of self-worth, learning how to think, “suddenly will find that with more than 10 years of staff seems wiser, before I stared at them to do things, now they will take the initiative to talk with me,” the introduction of the management of TOYOTA Taiwan bicycle parts factory Ludwig general manager Chen Zhongyi said.
Team operations – no stars, middle and upper level employees; take things for granted
Compared with the incentive mechanism of stock bonus system, TOYOTA management emphasizes the intrinsic incentive factors, such as stable long-term and safe work, which are two different logical thinking
This is a choice of enterprises and employees, leaving TOYOTA employee salary management, not too high, but the stability of the work. Learning organization in full to pursue improvement, emphasize teamwork is, who will not give special salary, TOYOTA, not looking for the star, but to find on the level of the staff, to cultivate and shape.
Lin Wenzheng, a professor at National Central University, pointed out that TOYOTA’s expectations for employees are not the innovation of the company’s great leap forward, but innovation and improvement are different”
This kind of small enterprises prefer to improve employees every day presents a province, a piece of money, nor can a tendency suddenly put forward ten million innovative solutions, “this is really suitable for automotive or manufacturing industry logic, because changes little, if placed in the design industry and software industry, the innovation needs big industry that may not be applicable”
Lin Wenzheng visited Japan’s largest supplier of TOYOTA Denso, impressed, because they have pressure of a company can make a lot of money, innovation case, reason is that this will make others want to find innovative solutions so big, and indirectly caused employees not to mention small improvements.
He said: “it is really long at short pattern!” business is the pursuit of long-term balance, TOYOTA and these enterprises also need to make money, but they might be willing to take 50% of the proportion of out look far. China enterprise can try to look at TOYOTA, the proportion from zero to one or two good, perhaps can really have a world-class enterprise.
Bit by bit, after thirty years of deep plowing, TOYOTA has created many of the first international level today. It reflects the nature of the Japanese people who can wait and endure
Is there a great deal of wisdom here? Neither, nor is it. The present president Watanabe Aki’s answer is wonderful: “TOYOTA just takes it for granted”